Lab Equipment: Technochemical Analysis
|LAB EQUIPMENT||Analysis equipment, peripheral equipment and consumables|
|LAB FURNITURE||Laboratory furniture of Köttermann, Waldner, Flores Valles and others|
|CONTAINER LAB||Mobile or semi stationary laboratories in a container or on a trailer|
|SENSORY LAB||Special equipment for the sensory product control|
|TRAINING||Training of the users as well as preparation for certification|
|INSTALLATION||Installation of laboratory furniture|
THIEMT is a system supplier for complete laboratories: we plan independently and configure the equipment for turn-key laboratories.
For selected turn-key projects we supply and install the complete equipment needed for a laboratory respectively for an all-embracing quality management.
We do not see ourselves as a laboratory dealer and usually supply equipment only within the scope of a project.
Devices, which are used for the material- and purity testings and for the extraction and preparation of chemical products. Serving for the qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Samples: Spectral photometer, devices for the interpretation of nitrogen (e.g. Kjeldahl), density measuring devices, devices for the measurement of conductivity.
Biology and Biotechnology
Devices and systems, which are serving to the enhancement/cultivation, analysis and interpretation of the material of biological origin resp. to the (active) solid production or biotransformation.
Samples: Devices for the PCR-measuring method, incubators, digester.
Chromatography (gr. colour drawing)
Physicochemical method for the separation of the mixture of substances. In the process, the sample, (gas- or liquid mixture) will be brought into a separating system, consisting of a separating segment and 2 none interblending phases. Depending on differently strong interactions, with the flow substance (mobile phase) and the nonemotile (stationary) phase, the single components will be transported on the separating segment, rapidly different. At the end of the separating segment resp. of the separating process, they will be detected (e.g. peak, dyeing) and, if applicable, lagged for additional analysis purposes.
Classification of the chromatography types:
- By separating principle: adsorption, distribution (solubility), ionic-exchange, extensive property (molecule strainer), affinity, enantiomer.
Remark: Mostly different separating mechanisms are becoming important at the chromatography.
- By aggregate state of the mobile phase: Liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, hypercritical fluid-chromatography.
- By geometric design of the separating segment: Columns-, flat base- (planar) and layer chromatography.
Column-Chromatography-Systems, which are often used:
- Gas Chromatography (GC)
A gaseous resp. undecomposed, vaporable sample will be put on a heated column and will be conducted over liquid- or solid stationary phase by an indifferent carrier gas as a mobile phase. Separation by the boiling point, distribution- and adsorptions forces.
Application: Medicine, biology, food chemistry, environmental analysis, forensic
Sample: Emission control of industrial production facilities; Coupling with mass spectrometer at the metabolite analysis.
- High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
The solution present analytics will be pumped through a column of solid stationary phase, by the flow substance, under high pressure (up to 500 bar). A particle size, smaller 10 µm (stat. phase), raises the separating performance enormously. 80 % of all HPLC are made by RP (reversed phase), a phase anyway, which is covalent against the elution substance.
This method is applied, for example, at the proof of doping substances, like erythropoietin in the blood.
The concept of spectroscopy summarizes a class of methods, which are analyzing the interaction of the electromagnetic radiation, by the matter.
As a function of the used wavelengths (e.g. microwave-, infrared,-, vis-, uv-, Roentgen-radiation) resp. the analyzed matter (ions, atoms, molecules), the specific methods will be differentiated. Essentially, the spectroscopy serves to the structural reconnaissance and identification of ions, atoms and molecules.
In addition to the so-called elastic (e.g. x-ray diffraction XRD) and inelastic (e.g. Raman-spectroscopy) scattering, there is a 3. type interaction: The absorption resp. emission of photons/ light quantums. This last type is designated as the „spectroscopy in a proper sense“.
Types of spectroscopy – samples:
- Atomic spectroscopy:
- Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)
- Electron spectroscopy
- Gamma spectroscopy
- X-ray spectroscopy
- Molecule spectroscopy:
- Fluorescence spectroscopy
- Vibration spectroscopy -> infrared spectroscope a.o.
- Microwave spectroscopy
- Laser spectroscopy
- Ionic spectroscopy
Effectively, the near-infrared-spectroscopy NIRS, in particular, (wave length range 760 – 2500 nm), combined with the Fourier-transformation, discovers a boost of application. An interferometer, integrated in the spectrometer, provides a so-called interferogram and out of it, the essential spectrum will be calculated, by use of a mathmatic transformation (computerized). Essentially, the shortend measuring times are the benefit.
In- and Online-Systems
Among the in- and online measuring systems, the measurement takes place during the analyses processes, straight at resp. in the reactor/process-environment.
If applicable, the system is directly connected with the process control system.
Advantages compared to offline-analytics:
- High information content
- Early warning system
- Extended flexibility at the device build-up by variable gap between measuring- and processing system.
Disadvantages compared to offline-analytics:
- Only few analyses methods applicable: Essentially photometric- and electrochemical methods
- Perhaps lower measuring accuracy
Difference between inline- and online-measurement:
Online: Assay (educt, (intermediate)product) will be obtained/ alienated off the process and convicted into a measuring cell. The assay will be condemned afterwards.
Inline (In situ): The probe will be installed directly into the reactor/substancial current or in a bypass. The assay remains in the process. This method is especially suited for toxic/explosive/air- and temperature sensitive substances.
Samples: Online-analyser for the blur measurement, inline-carbon dioxide measuring device.
Devices, which are intended to serve the quality control of packaging (glass, plastic, metal) and their content. Be proved on integrity and sufficient stability of the packaging material, on correlation between the packaging and the content, on sufficient storability and filling quantity, according to the product information on the packing.
Samples: Oxygen measurement in stuffed bottles and cans, filling quantity control, can fold control, wall thickness measurement, identification of the internal pressure consistency.
Basic Lab Configuration
Electrical devices, vessels, tools and other auxiliaries, which are used in each lab. Samples: Compartment drier, water bath, Bunsen burner, tripod with a double socket and clamps, magnetic stirrer, jar forceps, Peleus ball, glassware, porcelain mortar.
Raw materials and supplies, which are used up in analytical processes resp. adopted in analyses.
Samples: Filter papers, chemicals, Eppendorf-cones, Petri dishes, cannulas, etc.
Biological Culture Media
Substrates, which are serving as a proof for the cultivation of microorganisms (bacteria), cells and tissues.
A distinction is made between liquid culture media, also referred to as nutritional solution and solid nutrient media. Beside the essential nutrients (organic resp. inorganic carbon-, nitrogen-, sulfur- and phosphate sources), inorganic salts as well as the gelling agent at solid media, frequently the following substances are contained in variable rates:
Buffer-substances, dyestuffs or their prestages, retardents for other microorganisms, indicators. The selection of the culture media is only directed to the requirements of the cultivating item/microorganism.
Samples: Agar-Agar, Bouillon